2014 People: Entrepreneur of the Year
2014 People: Entrepreneur of the Year
Why Should I Exfoliate?
Plain and simple exfoliation is an important process in maintaining clean and healthy skin; it removes dead skin cells on the surface of your skin (the epidermis) keeping your skin cleaner, smoother and brighter.
Sugar Scrubs help clean your skin’s surface and unclogged pores which help with cell turnover and rejuvenation. Sugar Scrubs can be used on any body part as long as it is chemical and fragrance free as in Remarlé ® LLC products. Sugar cane is the main source of glycolic acid which is a good way to battle the signs of skin aging; it is also good for people experiencing acne and blackheads as well as extremely dry skin. When the sugar scrub is applied in a gentle circular motion removing or exfoliating as much of the dead skin cells as possible fresh new skin is revealed. This is when you should moisturize. The natural vitamin enriched oils used in Remarlé ® LLC products act as a barrier so that water does not quickly evaporate from the skin making it Remarkablé Smooth and Soft ™. Additionally, Remarlé ® LLC products contain Vitamins A, C, and E known to contribute to the health of your skin.
Why do I need to moisturize my skin?
The skin needs moisture to repair and renew itself. While the skin produces it own oil through the sebaceous glands, sometimes extra moisture is needed. As we get older our skin does not produce enough oil and becomes very dry, add in menopause and all of a sudden the wrinkles, lines and visible signs are aging are prevalent. The Skin needs to be hydrated either internally or topically to be soft, supple and smooth.
Moisturizers have been found to help restore the skin barrier providing a protective layer on surface of the skin to trap water and prevent the penetration of irritants and allergens. An emollient cream is superior in trapping the moisture within the skin. There are five randomized controlled trials showing benefit to emollient use in atopic eczema. Remarlé ® Skin Smoothing Shea Butter Crème is an emollient and has been awarded the National Eczema Association Seal of Acceptance.
What are the benefits of Vitamins A, C, and E for my skin?
Vitamin A – Vitamin A is very good for skin health and it actually harnesses and reverses the effects of multiple skin problems. Vitamin A is known for remedying issues such as wrinkles as it acts as an antioxidant that limits the action of free radicals from causing damage to your skin.
Vitamin C – Vitamin C is a tremendous antioxidant that helps in slowing down the natural process of skin aging. The skin usually begins to show its first signs of aging and wrinkling when the body stops or slows down the production of two proteins- elastin and collagen. These proteins are essential in order to maintain the health ofyour skin and keep it young. To overcome these skin problems, the use of vitamin C is highly beneficial as it assists in the production of collagen. It helps in minimizing the sun damage caused to the skin by neutralizing the free radicals.
Vitamin E – One of the major factors that cause substantial damage to our skin cells is exposure to ultraviolet radiation of the sun. When it permeates into the skin, it attacks the oxygen molecules present in the skin cells first. As a result, the oxygen molecules are converted into free radicals. Even though oxygen is an essential component for the existence of our life, its free radicals have high reactivity and are toxic in nature. Due to its reactive nature, the free radicals of oxygen launch an attack on proteins, lipids and DNA molecules. The collagen protein present in the skin which is responsible for making the skin smooth and supple are used up by the free radicals. This accelerates the aging process of the skin and gives rise to problems like skin discoloration, wrinkles, age spots, etc. The skin gets a leathery texture. It can increase the risk of skin cancer too. Vitamin E oil has some inherent qualities that enable it to provide protection to our skin from all these harmful effects of free radicals.
What are the benefits of Shea Butter Crème?
Shea butter is extracted from the nut of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) in West Africa. High levels of natural anti-oxidants (A and E) and essential fatty acids (Stearic and Oleic) found within the nut’s buttery contents have proven extremely effective for moisturizing and repairing damaged skin. Shea Butter works because it is able to penetrate the epidermis and provide a protective layer which traps water and keeps the skin hydrated.
Shea butter’s healing qualities include:
Shea Butter also has antimicrobial (used against bacteria and antifungals) and anti-inflammatory properties.
To view my entire product line visit my website http://www.remarlellc.com
I was 10 years old when I developed Eczema on my feet. I was up all night crying and scratching much to my mother’s chagrin. I had it soo bad that I was allowed to wear open toed shoes to Catholic School (with a doctor’s note of course). The rebel and fashionista I was, I of course wore platform open toed shoes; it was after all 1973. The nuns just loved me.
My mother took me to my newborn brother’s pediatrician who only chastise me for keeping my mom up all night and never gave me anything to help with the itching. He told me to “just stop scratching and go to sleep and stop keeping my mom up all night”. I will never forget this because anyone that has ever had eczema knows that you want nothing more than to “just stop scratching and get a good night’s sleep”. It was not until a year later that a family relative recommended to my mom and dad to take me to a dermatologist. It was there that he prescribed “Valisone” the ointment. In two weeks the eczema cleared and my mom and I were able to sleep again.
Valisone is no longer available, which I am shocked about because it worked. The good news is that my patent pending “Hand Scrub” formula is helping people get relief from eczema. It exfoliates and moisturizes at the same time without causing more pain to the area.
If you have eczema you should give it a try.
Below are testimonials I received before having a website that enables people that have purchased products online to review as a verified buyer. There are also Facebook and Instagram testimonials not listed here. My products are amazing, but please don’t take my word for it, read the reviews.
“Just wanted folks to know how truly impressed I am with Remarlé LLC Exfoliant & Moisturizer. I am a woman in my mid-sixties with very dry skin, most especially in winter, that results in lines and cracks around my eyes and mouth making my skin appear withered. I have tried many, many moisturizers even some very expensive brand names but after repeated use I always develop allergy symptoms resulting in ugly swellings under my eyes. I have been using Remarlé Exfoliant & Moisturizer on my face for about 7 months with remarkable results. The exfoliant crystals reduce the appearance of facial pores, especially on my nose and cheeks, making my skin look healthier, while the oil makes my face feel very, very silky. In the coldest days of winter my face showed no cracks or dryness, and unlike many moisturizers, there is absolutely no oily residue. Even now in the heat of summer it leaves my skin soft and silky without any oily feel. Best of all, I have not experienced any allergy symptoms even after all these months!” Ann D. – Bensalem, PA
“First thing I would like to do is thank you for your BODY SCRUB that you make. I have M.S. and VERY DRY SKIN and I tried so many different body scrubs. Someone told me about you and how you make an all-natural body scrub. So I tried it and I love it. My skin is now soft and doesn’t look all dry. THANK YOU NO MORE DRY SKIN” Cindy K – Philadelphia, PA
“I have been meaning to send you a message to tell you that I absolutely love the products! They are fabulous and I am looking forward to getting in touch the 2nd or 3rd week of September to place an order! I have used most of the products in the market – i.e. Mary Kay, Avon, Arbonne, etc. and yours beats them hands down! Speaking of hands – OMG the cuticle oil and hand scrub is AMAZING! Great job!”- Lynnette Zack-Blanton
“I am in love with the scrub. I’ve been using it on my elbows too and can’t believe how soft and smooth they are!” THANKS – Gail
“This is the most amazing product! I have been using The Body Shop products which I have liked alot for several years and I find this to be so superior. I have very dry skin and this is the BEST!!!” – Barb Colombo
“I bought your body scrub at CLC craft fair, and I’m hooked already! Excellent product. I’m very sensitive to smells, and I love that my skin is so soft without smelling like a flower or a piece of fruit….thank you” – Beth B.
“This is an awesome product! For over 3 years I have had a problem with my right hand – dry, cracked, red, itchy, burning and sore (yes – I saw a dermatologist about this). On Saturday I tried the hand scrub and saw instant results! I am now on my 3rd day of using the hand scrub and I just can’t believe the significant changes to my hand. For the 1st time in 3 years I am not experiencing the pain & itching which had become part of my everyday existence! I have shared this product with several friends & they too are impressed with the results! I highly recommend Remarle products.” – Diane from Bensalem commented on Remarlé ® LLC Testimonials
“I have had eczema for 40 years; the worst is on my hands. I have taken prescription steroid ointment since I have had it and it just does not work. I also tried Aveeno lotion with socks, but still no change. It was not until I tried Remarle LLC’s hand scrub on my hands that I saw a change, it actually went away and my hands are silky smooth. ” – Ann Zimmerman
First time I used the Sugar Scrub was summer of 2013, I was about 15% covered in Psoriasis and the scrub did wonder for my skin and my psoriasis quickly faded away. I recently had a minor flare after being sick with flu, ordered the scrub from amazon, it arrived very quickly and after 4 days of using and the spots on my elbows, knees and legs are already starting to fade. I would continue to purchase the scrub and will also recommend this to anyone who suffers from psoriasis. – JP
Another customer comment – I swear by your deodorant and African soap!!! I can’t get enough!!!!!
Acne Face Wash review -Thank you for making such a great product! My skin gets softer and prettier each time I use this! – MD
Received my order today and am very happy with it; thank you so much! My friend gave me a small container of the body butter for Christmas and I used it on my feet. It makes them softer and takes the itch away. My dog also has bad skin allergies and his skin will get flaky and turn red. I tried the body butter on the red patches on him, as the steroid sprays and meds the vet prescribed did nothing. The body butter actually helps my dog’s skin! He doesn’t run away from me when I put it on him, and seems to enjoy the massage. And I don’t have to worry about the ingredients, and no steroids. Thank you so much for your products, excited to try the Shea butter creme on my own eczema.- H.S.
Body Butter for Psoriasis – Unscented
Love the Shea Butter Creme and Sugar Scrub. As a hairdresser, my hands are in water and chemicals all day long. It dries them out terribly to the point I developed hand eczema. The one two punch of these products is the only thing I used that works! I also just recently found a new use for the Shea butter, it helped to heal a fresh tattoo better than anything made specifically for that purpose!T.C.
This testimonial can be found on my facebook page https://www.facebook.com/tim.coryell/activity/10206689874386258?notif_t=fbpage_new_review
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Worked wonders on my eczema! Wish I took before and after pics! Have also been using the body butter on my feet, and it feels great. The body butter has also helped my dogs skin allergy. Will definitely continue to buy products from here!
Shea Butter Creme
Best winter friend!
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
I have purchased much more expensive products that do not work as well as these . I have been pleased with every item purchased and would recommend them to anyone.
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
I couldn’t be happier!
It’s always been difficult for me to find deodorant that works for me. I’ve used several clinical strength deodorants that don’t work nearly as well.
Shea Butter Crème for Rosacea
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Dealing with Rosacea is challenging. I tried everything with no success. These Product have helped my skin so much. I am thrilled at the improvement in my skin. I plan on continuing to purchase these products & am grateful to have found then. Thank you! Carol C.
The success to good skin is cell turnover and rejuvenation. New skin is revealed when the sugar scrub is applied in a gentle circular motion removing or exfoliating dead skin cells; once the dead skin are removed and new skin is revealed you need to moisturize immediately for the rejuvenation to be effective. Remarlé ® LLC Natural Skin Care products were specifically designed to moisturize while exfoliating creating the remarkablé smooth and soft feel. Additionally, Remarlé ® LLC products contain Vitamins A, C, and E which are known to contribute to the health of your skin. Moreover, sugar cane is the main source of glycolic acid which is a good way to battle the signs of skin aging; it is also good for people experiencing acne and blackheads as well as extremely dry skin. www.ChaCha.com www.eHow.com
What does “Natural” actually mean? The classic definition of natural skin care is based on using botanically sourced ingredients currently existing in or formed by nature, without the use of synthetic chemicals, to preserve the integrity of the ingredients. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_skin_care
Why Should I Exfoliate? Plain and simple exfoliation is an important process in maintaining clean and healthy skin; it removes dead skin cells on the surface of your skin (the epidermis) keeping your skin cleaner, smoother and brighter. Pure Premium Cane Sugar used in Remarle LLC Natural Sugar Scrubs is a natural exfoliant.
Why do I need to moisturize my skin? The skin needs moisture to repair and renew itself. While the skin produces it own oil through the sebaceous glands, sometimes extra moisture is needed. As we get older our skin does not produce enough oil and becomes very dry, add in menopause and all of a sudden the wrinkles, lines and visible signs are aging are prevalent. The Skin needs to be hydrated either internally or topically to be soft, supple and smooth. Herbs and essential oils are the best natural moisturizers for the skin. The best remedy for dry skin is any of Remarle LLC’s Skin Smoothing Sugar Scrub, followed up with an emollient creme such as Remarle ‘s award winning creme, body butter, or lotion. www.buzzle.com
What are the benefits of Vitamins A, C, and E for my skin? Vitamin A – Vitamin A is very good for skin health and it actually harnesses and reverses the effects of multiple skin problems. Vitamin A is known for remedying issues such as wrinkles as it acts as an antioxidant that limits the action of free radicals from causing damage to your skin. Vitamin C – Vitamin C is a tremendous antioxidant that helps in slowing down the natural process of skin aging. The skin usually begins to show its first signs of aging and wrinkling when the body stops or slows down the production of two proteins- elastin and collagen. These proteins are essential in order to maintain the health of your skin and keep it young. To overcome these skin problems, the use of vitamin C is highly beneficial as it assists in the production of collagen. It helps in minimizing the sun damage caused to the skin by neutralizing the free radicals. Vitamin E – One of the major factors that cause substantial damage to our skin cells is exposure to ultraviolet radiation of the sun. When it permeates into the skin, it attacks the oxygen molecules present in the skin cells first. As a result, the oxygen molecules are converted into free radicals. Even though oxygen is an essential component for the existence of our life, its free radicals have high reactivity and are toxic in nature. Due to its reactive nature, the free radicals of oxygen launch an attack on proteins, lipids and DNA molecules. The collagen protein present in the skin which is responsible for making the skin smooth and supple are used up by the free radicals. This accelerates the aging process of the skin and gives rise to problems like skin discoloration, wrinkles, age spots, etc. The skin gets a leathery texture. It can increase the risk of skin cancer too. Vitamin E oil has some inherent qualities that enable it to provide protection to our skin from all these harmful effects of free radicals. Vitamin K – Vitamin K may be applied topically, typically as a 5% cream, to diminish postoperative bruising from cosmetic surgery and injections, to treat broken capillaries (spider veins), to treat rosacea, and to aid in the fading of hyperpigmentation and dark under-eye circles. Remarlé ®LLC’s Hand Scrub and Cuticle Oil contain Vitamins A, C, and E Remarlé ®LLC’s Lip Scrub contains Vitamins C and E Remarlé ®LLC’s Body/Face/Feet Scrub contains Vitamin E Any Remarlé ® LLC’s product that contains Coconut Oil has the Vitamin K benefit. The Remarlé ® Body Butter has been shown to reduce redness in Psoriasis which has Coconut Oil and as a result Vitamin K. It also contains Vitamins A and E. www.buzzle.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K 112 Cohen, JL; Bhatia, AC (November 2009). “The role of topical vitamin K oxide gel in the resolution of postprocedural purpura”. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD 8 (11): 1020–4. PMID 1989436 113 Leu, S; Havey, J; White, LE; Martin, N; Yoo, SS; Rademaker, AW; Alam, M (September 2010). “Accelerated resolution of laser-induced bruising with topical 20% arnica: a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial”. The British journal of dermatology 163 (3): 557–63. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09813.x. PMID 20412090.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What does Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E do for the health of my hair?
Antioxidant Vitamins like A, C,and E are important for healthy scalp and hair. Not just as something to eat internally, but also topically as well.
Vitamin A bears antioxidant properties that help keep dangerous free radicals from damaging your hair.
If you lack vitamin C, you can lose your hair excessively. With Vitamin C as a part of you Hair Care routine, it may help to combat hair loss problems and also may prevent free radicals from oxidizing your hair.
Vitamin E, chemically referred to as alpha-tocopherol, is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is known for offering a number of health benefits. The antioxidants present in the Vitamin E protects the cell membranes from damage. It is one of the most beneficial vitamins that can be used for the prevention of skin and hair problems.
To see my full product line and more information about my products visit www.remarlellc.com
Honey not offers incredible natural antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hygroscopic properties for our body and health but also contains antioxidants. Its powerful healing attributes have long been used for thousands of years and is known to promote healing for cuts, cure ailments and diseases, and correct health disorders for generations after generations.
Honey has a hygroscopic nature, which means when exposed to air; it naturally absorbs moisture in from the air. It helps keep skin hydrated, fresh and prevents drying. Thus, some people call honey a natural “humectant” as it attracts and retains moisture leaving skin soft and supple and is great for hydrating the lines around the lips.
Honey is antibacterial and can be used to help treat minor acne by attacking the bacteria that cause the outbreaks while moisturizing the skin to aid rejuvenation. Researchers began to document the healing properties of honey in the early part of the 20th century. This ceased with the development of antibiotics but recently the development of resistance to antibiotics has led to a resurgence of interest into the healing properties of honey.
Honey is antimicrobial and prevents the growth of certain bacteria. It contains an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide which is believed to be the main reason for the antimicrobial activity of honey. As such, honey is a useful treatment for wounds and scalds. Cuts, abrasions and scalds can be covered in honey to prevent bacteria from entering the wound and promote healing. So if your lips are chapped and sore the honey should provide relief and protection.
Honey contains natural antioxidant properties that can destroy biologically destructive chemical agents which have been linked to many diseases such as cancer. Not only can honey’s antioxidants help to eliminate free radicals in the body, they are also part of the nutrient supply for growth of new tissue known to keep skin youthful smooth and soft.
Visit my full product line at www.remarlellc.com
Organophosphorus pesticide exposure among agricultural workers, their spouses, their children, and consumers: A literature review
Department of Public Health
08 June 2008
Objective: To review research on the exposure of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides among agricultural workers, their spouses, their children, and consumers. OP pesticides are of particular concern because of their acute toxicity and widespread use.
Method: This review included 15 published studies that reported on the exposure to organophosphorous pesticides through surveillance, intervention and epidemiological studies as well as various descriptive articles to gain more insight into OP pesticides, their adverse health effects, how we are ingesting them and if there is a possible solution to this public health dilemma.
Results: The findings indicate that OP pesticides are being ingested into our bodies in great quantities. The mechanism of action is eating foods that are grown with the pesticides, through take home pathways from farmers to their families, or breathing it in the air.
Conclusion/Implications: Exposure to OP pesticides is not only a health concern for the applicators, but also for their families, those living near farms and consumers.
About 70% of insecticides used in theUnited Statesare OP pesticides (Lu et al., 2001 and Loewenherz et al., 1997). The OP pesticides interfere with the nervous system of humans when people are exposed. Agricultural uses of OP pesticides include corn, canola, alfalfa, produce and nuts. People are commonly exposed to OP pesticides through eating fresh vegetables and fruit, contact with surfaces that are pesticide-contaminated, and breathing air near indoor and outdoor applications. Exposure to OP pesticides have been recently documented by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and academic scientists which show that farmers, their families and consumers have OP pesticides in their urine. Children and infants consume more food per kilogram of bodyweight then adults do and are therefore likely to have a higher concentration of OP pesticides in their systems. Since OP pesticides do not build up in the body fat of humans, it was concluded that there is exposure to these chemicals on a regular basis. This is of public health concern since OP pesticides can cause nausea, headaches, twitching, trembling, excessive salivation, tearing, an inability to breathe because of paralysis of the diaphragm, convulsions and at high doses, death. The purpose of this paper was to examine the exposure and see ways in which prevention of exposure can be demonstrated. In this review, the focused was on studies that demonstrated how the pesticides are getting into our bodies.
To identify studies addressing OP pesticide exposure, PubMed was searched and the Yahoo search engine was utilized using combinations of the keywords organophosphorus pesticides, exposure, organic foods, agricultural, farming, farmers, spouses of farmers, and children of farmers, environment. Information gathered spanned from 1995-2008. Studies were included if they gave insight into the how OP pesticides were being exposed in humans. For example, included were children who ate organic foods versus children who ate conventional and also how pesticides were getting into the household of farmers. Excluded were specific research studies that talk about cancer. However, there was an interesting study on “Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease- Is there a Link?” which is addressed later in the implications portion of this paper. In all, 19 studies were reviewed and various descriptive articles to gain more insight into OP pesticides, their adverse health effects, and how we are ingesting them as well as a possible solution. My research was divided into two categories (1) exposure of OP pesticides in the home of farmers (2) the exposure of OP pesticides in children.
3.1 Exposure of OP Pesticides in the Homes of Farmers
Pesticides in the home may represent a longer source of exposure than outdoor applications. They may be present in the air, water or dust in or around the surfaces of the home (Hoppin et al 2006). It was hypothesized that children and spouses of farmers are potentially exposed to pesticides indirectly by take-home contamination. This was confirmed by studies conducted by Curl et al., 2002, Arcury et al., 2007 and again by Thompson et al., 2008. Pesticide residue on farm workers clothing, shoes, and skin is brought into the home from the fields and then these residues persist in the indoor environment (e.g., house dust) where they are a potential source of exposure to farm workers families. In a study conducted in 2004 by Coronado et al, workers who mixed, loaded and applied pesticides had less amounts of pesticide residues in their house or vehicle dust than compared with those who did not perform those specific agricultural tasks who surprising had more. Intervention programs to reduce take home pesticide exposure among farm workers and their children failed (Thompson et al 2008). The interpretation of take home pathway of pesticide exposure was unreliable across different analytical methods and laboratories,
Currently there is a study called the Agricultural Health Study which is a prospective cohort of about 90,000 commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers’ spouses being conducted inIowaandNorth Carolinainvolving the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project included interviews to obtain information on agricultural practices such as monitoring of pesticide exposures. An Agricultural Health Study conducted in the summer and spring of 2001, tested the urine concentration of 47 fathers, 48 mothers, and 117 children ofIowafarm house holds and non-farm households were screened for specific metabolites (a subset of OP pesticides) that were used extensively inIowafarming. Farm families had higher concentration of some of the metabolites, where some of the other metabolites there was not a difference. Farm children had significantly higher urinary results if fathers had applied the pesticides prior to urinary sample collection (Curwin et al 2007).
3.2 Exposure of OP pesticides in children
Children have a greater vulnerability to the effects of chemical exposure because of their high rate of metabolism, less mature immune systems, and the fact that they tend to eat the foods that have high pesticide residue.
In 1999 Eskenazi et al., conducted a study to discuss the extent of children’s exposure to pesticides and their possible adverse effects as well as investigate exposures to children living in an agricultural area and possible effects on growth, neurobehavioral development, and respiratory disease. It was concluded that more studies were needed to gather more information on the sources, pathways, and levels of pesticide exposure especially of those children at highest risk living in agricultural communities. Later, in another study conducted by Eskensazi et al., 2007 it was concluded that mental development and pervasive problems were found in children exposed to OP.
Conventional fruits are 3.6 times more likely to contain pesticide residues than organic fruit; vegetables contain 6.8 more times. Imported foods contain more residues then domestic samples, regardless of market (Pesticide Data Program, 2007). A research study conducted by theUniversityofWashington(Curt et al., 2003) found that children consuming conventional food had 8.5 times higher average levels of OP pesticides than children eating mostly organic. The research assessed OP pesticide residues in two to five year olds consuming a diet composed of mostly organic foods versus conventional foods. The team found that two to five year olds consuming mostly organic foods over a three day period had much lower mean levels of OP insecticide metabolites in their urine. Children consuming conventional food had 8.5 times higher average levels. Parents kept food diaries. The research team concluded that “The dose estimates suggest that consumption of organic fruits, vegetables and juice can reduce children’s exposure levels form above to below the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency’s current guidelines, thereby shifting exposures from a range of uncertain risk to a range of negligible risk. Consumption of organic produce appears to provide a relatively simple way for parents to reduce their children’s exposure to OP pesticides.” (page 377)
In other study conducted to access if an organic diet would significantly lower exposure to OP pesticides was conducted in 2006 by Lu. A group of 23 elementary school-age students ages 3-11 were enrolled in this study for 15 days. Organic foods were eaten for five days and conventional foods were eaten for ten days. Two spot daily urine samples were collected first thing in the morning and before bedtime for fifteen days. A food diary was kept by the parents. All organic items were purchased by the research staff at a single grocery store. The metabolites from the OP pesticides were undetectable when the children ate the organic foods. When the conventional foods were reintroduced the metabolites were again detectable. The study demonstrated that an “an organic diet provides a dramatic and immediate protective effect against exposures to organophosphorus pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural production. We also concluded that these children were most likely exposed to these organophosphorus pesticides exclusively through their diet” (page 260).
In the early 1990’s little was known about the levels of pesticides in foods we ate. Much new data on pesticide residues in food has emerged as a result of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in 1996. This bill took into account the susceptibility of infants and children since they consume more food per kilogram of bodyweight then adults do and are therefore likely to have a higher concentration of OP pesticides in their systems. Despite knowing the risk of pesticides there are still many foods that contain high levels of pesticides. Those foods are: apples, pears, peaches, grapes, green beans, tomatoes, peas, strawberries, spinach, peppers, melons, lettuce and various juices. Most of these foods are most commonly eaten by children (Baker et al 2002). The 2002 National Research Council (NRC) report Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children concluded that pesticide exposure may account for the increased adverse health events in children. The findings for the OP pesticides exposure in children in the study conducted by Lu in 2006 supports the conclusion made by the NRC in 1993 that the dietary intake of pesticides represents the major source of exposure in infants and young children.
Research on the effects of farm workers has taken place for almost 20 years and yet still much is not certain and unknown. The effects that pesticides have on farm families due to the farmers bringing pesticides home on their skin, trucks, and clothing has only been looked at within the past few years. More research is needed to understand the extent to which pesticides have adversely affected our health. Neurobehavioral performance has been most recently identified with chronic OP exposure (McCauley et al 2006).
Several studies have found that farm homes have higher concentration of pesticides than those homes not having a member in the farming industry (Simcox et al., 1995; Bradman et al, 1997; Lu et al., 2000, 2001 and 2006, Curl et al, 2002; Fenske et al., 2005; McCauley et al., 2006). Pesticide urine concentrations were higher among children of farm workers compared to children of non-farm families (Loewenherz et al, 1997; Lu et al 2004).
In theUnited Statesin 1999 it was recorded that farmers applied approximately 540 million kilograms of pesticides (USEPA 2002). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Heath (NIOSH) reported to congress in 1995 a concern for pesticide exposure among children of farmers and farm workers. In 1998, the National Resource Defense Council (NRDC) considers pesticides to be one of the highest environmental threats to children’s health.
Research studies have shown that OP pesticides are a public health risk. We do know some of the multiple illnesses caused by OP pesticide exposure; however what we do not know may be more of a concern. More complex surveillance of OP pesticide related illnesses are needed so that we can study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects.
There may be long term effects OP pesticides not present yet to society such as new diseases or unexplained illnesses. For example, Parkinson’s Disease (PD), is a disease of the nervous system and the cause is still unknown. However in 2006 there was research that concluded a relationship exists between PD and pesticides in the study “Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease-Is There a Link?”(Brown et al, 2006).
An intervention is warranted for the safety of the public’s health to stop the ingesting of pesticides. Interventions such as “vertical farming” would at best alleviate many of the adverse health effects we are seeing by the use of pesticides. Vertical farming is a concept that resides inside urban high rises. It uses greenhouse growing and no pesticides and can supply fruit, vegetables, fish and livestock, allowing cities to become self sufficient and healthier. All foods would be organically grown without fertilizer and free of disease. Moreover, it is estimated that by the year 2050 there will not be enough land to farm to feed all of the people in the world (www.verticalfarm.com).
By converting from “horizontal farming” to “vertical farming”, humanity may never have to worry about:
Vertical farming is something we should start looking into implementing today. If successfully implemented, it offers promise of:
Technology to construct vertical farms currently exists. It can be designed to use energy generated from wind power and solar power. It will use less water, with the option of re-cycling it, eliminating the world’s most serious form of pollution – agricultural runoff. The vertical farm aspires to be self-sufficient.
Acury TA, Grzywacz JG, Barr DB, Tapia J, Chen H, Quandt SA. Pesticide urinary metabolite L
levels of children in easternNorth Carolinafarm worker households. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 115(8): 1254-1260
Baker, B., Benbrook CM, Groth E, and Benbrook KL. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2002;19(5):427-446.
Bradman A,Whitaker D, Quiros l, Castronia R, Henn BC, Nishioka M, Morgan J, Barr DB, Harnly M, Brisbin JA, Sheldon LS, McKOne TE, Eskenazi B. Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworkers children living inSalinias Vally,CA. J Expo Science Environmental Epidemiology. 2007; 17(4):331-349.
Brown TP, Rumsby PC, Capleton AC, Rushton L, Levy LS. Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease- Is there a link? Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006; 114(2); 156-164
Coronado GD, Thompson B, Strong L, Griffith, WC, Islas I. Agricultural task and exposure to organophosphate pesticides among farm workers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004; 112:142-147.
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